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US Patent: 38,914
Improvement in Wrenches
Improved Ratchet-Wrench
J. J. Richardson - Woodstock, VT

USPTO Classifications:
81/185, 81/61

Tool Categories:
wrenches : ratchet wrenches


J. J. Richardson - Woodstock, VT

Thomas Middleton
Nathan T. Churchill

Patent Dates:
Granted: Jun. 16, 1863

Patent Pictures: [ 1 | 2 ]
J. J. Richardson patent June 16, 1863 with image from Scientific American
USPTO pdf tiff
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Ratchet wrench with removable ratcheting socket; the patent envisions several interchangeable socket heads with different size internal openings.

Manufacturer attribution taken from Ken Cope's "American Wrench Makers 1830-1930." The patent rights were offered for sale in 1864.

A known example with three interchangeable heads has no visible markings.

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