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US Patent: 584,591
Chester F. Johnson - Boston, MA

USPTO Classifications:
81/119, 81/180.1, 81/99

Tool Categories:
wrenches : nut wrenches

Frederic Allen Whiting - Framingham, MA

Whiting, Macomber and Whiting - South Framingham, MA
Whiting Manufacturing Company - South Framingham, MA

Grace E. Hibbert
Kirkley Hyde
Albert M. Moore
William Hannaford

Patent Dates:
Applied: Mar. 19, 1896
Granted: Jun. 15, 1897

Patent Pictures: [ 1 | 2 ]
Chester F. Johnson Pat. June 15, 1897
USPTO pdf tiff
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This screw-adjust nut wrench has the "fixed" jaw on a pivot with a spring holding the jaw. The jaw will spring partially open on "reverse" movement, allowing for ratchet type movment when using the wrench on square headed nuts. The swinging toggle on the jaw was to hold the wrench in place when driving vertical lag screws, or working on nuts on vertical bolts.

Marketed as the Whiting Ratchet Action Wrench. A March 11, 1897 IRON AGE piece announced the formation of Whiting, Macomber & Whiting to manufacture this wrench. A July 1, 1897 IRON AGE notice lists four sizes -- 6 inch through 12 inch.

Johnson later refined the idea of the swinging jaw -- see patent no. 622,486.

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