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US Patent: 644,798
Internal Combustion Engine
Patentee:
Arthur J. Firth - New York, NY

USPTO Classifications:
123/298

Tool Categories:
propulsion and energy : internal combustion engines : diesel engines

Assignees:
Diesel Motor Co. of America - New York, NY

Manufacturer:
Not known to have been produced

Witnesses:
G. A. Taylor
Theodore I. Dorman

Patent Dates:
Applied: Oct. 23, 1899
Granted: Mar. 06, 1900

Patent Pictures:
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"Vintage Machinery" entry for Diesel Motor Co. of America
Description:

Abstract:

My invention relates to improvements in internal-combustion motors of the Diesel type. These engines work on a four-stroke cycle as follows: The combustion of fuel injected from the fuel-valve gives a pressure on the inward stroke of the piston. On the next outward stroke the waste gases or products of combustion are expelled from the cylinder. On the next inward stroke the cylinder fills with fresh air drawn in from the atmosphere. This air is compressed on the succeeding outward stroke to a temperature sufficient to ignite the fuel, which is now injected from the fuel-valve. Combustion of the mixture of air and fuel then ensues and the cycle recommences. For the successful operation of these engines it is essential that the temperature attained by the air in the cylinder during the period of compression on the fourth stroke of the cycle be high enough to cause ignition of the fuel when injected from the fuel-valve. It is also important that on the introduction of the fuel uniform and complete combustion shall take place as quickly as possible. Owing to the large amount of relatively-cooler metallic surface to which the air is exposed at this point and the proximity of the usual water-jacket the loss of heat between the time of compression and that of the admission of the fuel may become so great as to preclude a proper ignition. This may be compensated for by an excessive compression, but only at the expense of additional energy.

In the German engines it has been the practice to simply compress the air in the top of the cylinder, thus forming a cylindrical body of air exposed to the combined cooling effect of the entire cylinder end, the piston-face, and a strip around the cylinder equal in length to the circumference of the cylinder and in Width to the distance between the cylinder-head and the piston-face at the outer limit of the stroke. As the strip last mentioned is usually backed by a water-jacket it is readily apparent that the construction gives a very large amount of cooling-surface per cubic inch of enclosed air. Now it is evident that if the metallic surface to which the air is exposed can be diminished the detrimental cooling of feet will be considerably lessened; and the objects of my improvements are to provide a clearance-space in the cylinder of less surface area than has been hitherto employed and to afford facilities for the rapid introduction and ignition of the fuel.

Claims:

l. In an internal-combustion engine, the combination of a cylinder, a head on said cylinder, a piston in said. cylinder, said piston and cylinder-head being so shaped with respect to each other as to form between them a channel to serve as a clearance-space and ignition-chamber, the longitudinal axis of said channel lying substantially at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the cylinder, substantially as described.

2. In an internal-combustion engine, the combination of a cylinder, a head on said cylinder, a piston in said cylinder, said piston and cylinder-head being so shaped with respect to each other as to form between them a channel, the longitudinal axis of said channel coinciding with the diameter of the cylinder, and lying substantially at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the cylinder, to serve as a clearance-space and ignition-chamber, substantially as described.

3. In an internal-combustion engine, the combination .of a cylinder, ahead on said cylinder having a plane inner face, a piston in said cylinder, having a plane face opposed to the plane face of the cylinder-head and a channel in the piston-face, the longitudinal axis of said channel coinciding with a diameter of the cylinder, and lying substantially at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the cylinder, to provide clearance between the piston and the cylinder-head, substantially as described.

4. In an internal-combustion engine, the combination of a cylinder, a head on said cylinder having a plane inner face, said cylinder provided near said head with a lateral admission-port, a piston in said cylinder, having a plane face opposed to the plane face of the cylinder-head and a channel in the piston-face to provide clearance, the longitudinal axis of the channel lying substantially at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the cylinder, and in a plane passing through the longitudinal axis of the cylinder and the axis of the admission-port, whereby at the outer limit of the stroke the channel and port align, and provide a continuous chamber for the admission of the fuel charge, substantially as described.

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