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US Patent: 8,224X
Grinding metal surfaces (Grinder)
Elliptical spindle grinder
James Wheaton - Providence, RI

USPTO Classifications:

Tool Categories:
metalworking machines : grinders



William R. Staples
Philip G. Orastué

Patent Dates:
Granted: May 28, 1834

Patent Pictures:
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Most of the patents prior to 1836 were lost in the Dec. 1836 fire. Only about 2,000 of the almost 10,000 documents were recovered. It is one of the patents that was recovered.

Wheaton’s patent covers the first “universal grinding machine”, a machine with a traversing carriage.

Text of Patent:

“In the drawing hereto, annexed AAA represent the frame of the machine, BBB drums on a common shaft from which motion is communicated to the carriage lathe and thing to be ground, CCC railway or slide on the top of the frame on which the carriage DD traverses. This carriage is made of iron or other hard Metal and traverses back and forward on the railway or slide, the length of the spindle or other thing to be ground so as to present every part of it in succession to the Grindstone. This motion of the carriage together with the rotary motion of the spindle or thing to be ground hereafter mentioned is derived from the drum BBB by means of both endless screws and cog wheels. Neither these parts of the machine nor their relative positions nor their operation vary from the same part of the machine, called the Spindle Grinder, now in use; on the top of the carriage is the Lathe that holds the spindle or thing to be ground. This is also in the old machine but its mode of connection with the carriage is claimed as new, as well as the method of grinding it, and moves on the carriage from the center of the carriage or about the center, lengthwise and near the edge of it, next the grindstone extends upwardly a stud or pivot which is fast in the carriage but moves easily in a slot in the Lathe. The Lathe might be turned entirely around on this were it not for other parts of the machine, its object is to permit it to be partly turned as it moves on the carriage and at the same time to give it the same motion forward and back that the carriage has. In the old machine the Lathe has the same motion forward and back as the carriage and also a motion from side to side. The same effect may also be produced by connecting the Lathe to the carriage by means of wheels or pullies made fast to the one and moving in grooves made to the other, but this mode of connection though new is considered inferior to the one first described.

On the top of the side of the frame most remote from the Grindstone are placed several stands extending upward as high as the lathe, attached to there is the track of the lathe FF against this track the lathe passes in its passages backward and forward on the carriage. The stud or pivot which forms its connection with the carriage permitting it always to kick against it although it is not in a right line with the side of the lathe. The same result can be obtained by having the track under or over or on the other side of the lathe but so conveniently. This is also claimed as new. The friction of the lathe against the track and also on the carriage is diminished by the use of friction pullies. The lathe is kept steady and pressed against the track by means of the friction straps and weights, one of which is fastened to each end of the carriage to a stud. The Strap passing up over a pulley on the lathe from which the weight is suspended; one of these is seen in the drawing and is marked II.

On the top of the lathe and attached to it by a screw bolt passing through a slot is the spindle rest G made of lead or other soft metal. The thickness of the rest is equal to the diameter of the thing to be ground and its length depends upon the length of the thing to be ground. Against the side of this rest towards the Grindstone the Spindle or thing to be ground presses and rests. By means of two screws passing through a shoulder on the other side of this rest and playing into the stands passing through it near the other side, the Stands moving in slots in the rest, the rest itself is moved toward the grindstone as it is worn away by use. The shape, size and material of this rest are claimed as new.

The spindle or thing to be ground is held at each end by a spring centre on which it turns, motion being communicated to it by a belt from the Drum BBB.

H the Grindstone turns in an iron carriage on a frame extending back at right angles from the frame first described. This carriage with the stone in it can be moved on its frame to and from the spindle or thing to be ground by a screw in front of the first described frame. The friction here is diminished by the use of wheels or friction pullies under the carriage. The friction of the Grindstone and the manner in which it is moved with its carriage and turned are the same as in the old machine. The track of the lathe FF afore described is made of iron or other hard metal and its shape is varied according to the shape of the spindle or thing to be ground.

In operating a machine with this Improvement a rest is made corresponding in length and thickness with the length and diameter of the thing to be ground and is affixed to the lathe as afore described. A lathe track of proper shape is affixed to the stud on the frame. The spindle or thing to be ground is then fixed on its centres in back of the rest pressing against it, Motion being communicated to the Drum. A rapid rotary motion is given the spindle or thing to be ground and the Lathe traverses back and forward on its carriage, the front part of it being kept against the lathe track by means of the weights afore described and the pressure of the grindstone against the thing which is being ground, Motion being at the same time communicated to the Grindstone and the Grindstone by means of the screw being drawn and held against the spindle or thing to be ground as it passes in the lathe the requisite shape is given to the spindle or thing to be ground. The advantages resulting from this improvement are that the spindles or things ground with the same track of the Lathe are uniform in shape and size and the labour is performed with much less expense than by the ordinary method.

What I claim as my invention is the connection between the lathe and carriage by means of the pivot or stud placed and used as afore described by which each end of the lathe is left free to move to or from the Grindstone and the whole lathe is permitted to vibrate the length of the slot in which the stud or pivot is inserted.

The track so called which guides the lathe being of such form as to press the spindle or thing to be ground against the face of the grindstone in such manner as to produce the shape desired in the thing to be ground and also the use of weights to assist in keeping the lathe against said track and in keeping the lathe steady and the rest afore described.”

James Wheaton

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